Marine Environment and Resources

Climate change is already impacting the marine environment of the EMME region, the effects are expected to be exacerbated in the second half of the century, with implications on ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycling and marine biodiversity. Warmer seawater and ocean acidification will affect and restructure ecosystems. Moreover, sea-level rise and the intensification of extreme events is expected to affect human activities as tourism, maritime transport, port activities, offshore energy production and desalination.

This report provides an overview of the impact of climate change on the marine environment of the EMME region taking into consideration changes in physical and biogeochemical properties, and the vulnerability of ecosystems. The report also provides information on the effects of these changes on the relevant human activities and resources such as tourism, large infrastructures such as ports, desalination plants, sewage systems, energy plants and so on.

Furthermore, the report provides a review of existing policies on conservation efforts and highlights the benefits from incorporating climate change into marine spatial planning and examples of best practices for defining a framework for the sustainable management and governance of the sea.