The majority of countries in the EMME region suffer from water scarcity. Climate change projections are showing a future with reduced precipitation and more frequent and longer droughts, stressing the water resources situation further. The report assesses the current state of water resources in the EMME region and the challenges imposed by climate change. It uses a conceptual framework to identify research and policy needs for achieving climate resilience and water security. The report reviews national climate change adaptation strategies and evaluates the implementation and effectiveness of water-related adaptation policies and measures across the countries of the EMME region.
The report deals with the challenges and solutions for the water management sector in the EMME region, such as the need for enhancing water use efficiency, water demand management, cooperation on shared water resources, reforming current water management policies and practices and the implementation of a climate-water-energy-food nexus approach. Research and policy issues related to the use of non-conventional water resources, such as desalination and treated wastewater, which are increasingly contributing to the water needs of the region, are identified. The development and sustainability of these resources requires environmental, energy and other externalities to be considered while carefully exploring and enlarging the potential of such options. Improving and expanding non-conventional options demands decreasing their costs (financial, economic, health and environmental) for their effective employment.
The report also stresses the importance of improving awareness and climate change-water education and highlights the need for the consideration of diverse sources of financing in order to offer broader solutions to the problems faced in the water sector.